By Boris A. Kagan, Mikhail Hazin

This booklet goals to acquaint readers with the hot advances in experimental and theoretical investigations of ocean-atmosphere interactions, a swiftly constructing box in earth sciences. specific consciousness is paid to the scope and views for satellite tv for pc measurements and mathematical modeling. present methods to the development of coupled ocean-atmosphere types (from the best one-dimensional to entire three-d ones) for the answer of key difficulties in weather conception are mentioned intimately. box measurements and the result of numerical weather simulations are provided and aid to provide an explanation for weather variability that arises from a variety of normal and anthropogenic elements.

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Both methods of wind velocity determination are not without problems. The second method in particular, based on the assumption that there is a one-to-one correspondence between wind force and sea state and also on the assumption that the wind equivalent connecting the Beaufort estimation and wind velocity is known in all cases, has at least two disadvantages: subjectivity and application limited to daytime. Errors of wind velocity determined by this method vary from ± 2 m/s when wind force is equal to one point on the Beaufort scale to ± 5 m/s when wind force is equal to five points on the Beaufort scale, according to Taylor (1983).

11) is written in the form A1 = cx exp(i/cox) 4- c2 exp( — ikox) + \k1x{C1 Qxp(ikox) — C2 exp( —i/cox)] ko)x] + C2 - /c o )x]}. 12) which increases linearly with x. Since we are interested only in waves with restricted amplitudes this term has to be set to zero; this is equivalent to k1 = 0. Thus at K ^ 2/c0 wave propagation in an inhomogeneous environment is not accompanied by a change in frequency (co = coko). C, + ^ C2) exp(i/cox) - ko(2ktC2 x exp( — ikox) k2 + ^ Cx [Cx exp(3i/cox) + C2 exp( — 3i/cox)].

It should be borne in mind that the stationary solution discussed above does not necessarily have to be stable in the sense that the system in question approaches or stays for an infinitely long period in the vicinity of some stationary state oscillating around it. If the stationary state is asymptotically unstable then under the influence of external forces the system begins to move away from it and approach another stationary state, which can also be asymptotically stable or unstable. A vertical rod oscillating in the gravity field around the horizontal axis of rotation serves as the simplest example of systems with asymptotically stable and unstable stationary states.

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