By Raymond Aron
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Additional resources for Democracy and Totalitarianism
The Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty was published as The Responsibility to Protect (Ottawa, 2001), 31–32. 21. , 1996). See also the commentary in Evans, Resoponsibility to Protect, 36. 22. Kofi Annan, “Two Concepts of Sovereignty,” address to the 54th Session of the General Assembly, New York, New York, 18 September 1999. 23. For the cascade concept, see Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change,” International Organization, LII (1998), 887–917.
99 Crimes against humanity are not isolated or sporadic events, but are part of either a governmental policy or a widespread or systematic practice of atrocities that are tolerated, condoned, or acquiesced to by a government or a de facto authority. There are two general conditions for acts to qualify as crimes against humanity: First, it requires the inhumane acts to be committed in a systematic manner as a preconceived plan or policy; and second, they should be committed on a large scale. Each individual offence will either be a particular crime that is frequently repeated; be part of a string of such crimes (widespread practice); or be a particular manifestation of a policy or a plan drawn up or inspired by state authorities, an entity holding de facto authority over a territory, or an organized political group (systematic practice).
11. For Equatorial Guinea, see John R. ” in Robert I. , 2007), 223–249. Deterring Mass Atrocity Crimes 23 12. Seretse Ian Khama, “State of the Nation Address,” Tautona Times (13 November 2009), 27. 13. See Stephen D. Krasner, Power, the State, and Sovereignty: Essays on International Relations (New York, 2009), pp. 179–210; Hurst Hannum, Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights (Philadelphia, 1990), 14–26; Edward C. Luck, “Sovereignty, Choice, and the Responsibility to Protect,” Global Responsibility to Protect, I (2009), 10–21.