By Steven J. Zaloga

Beginning in 1940, Germany was once subjected to a starting to be danger of Allied bomber assault. The RAF evening bombing offensive equipped up slowly yet uled to an unrelenting crescendo during the Ruhr crusade in the summertime of 1944, and culminated within the assaults on Berlin within the autumn and early wintry weather of 1943-44. They have been joined by means of US sunlight raids which first started to have a significant influence on German within the autumn of 1943. This e-book makes a speciality of the land-based infrastructure of Germany's security opposed to the air onslaught.

The 3rd Reich created the main lavish Flak defenses of any nation in global struggle II. This booklet offers an summary of the Flak artillery, with a distinct emphasis on how Flak used to be deployed and a few of the original fortified buildings that have been created to augment Flak functionality comparable to the mythical Flak towers of the German towns. It additionally in short examines the innovative power of anti-aircraft missiles for Flak protection that have been at the verge of deployment on the finish of the warfare. even though the artillery component of Flak is the main widely recognized, Flak effectiveness used to be hugely depending on complicated digital sensors, in particular radar, for hearth regulate and particular focusing on. This publication examines how the 3rd Reich deployed radar and different complicated sensors in its protective belts akin to the Kammhuber Line.
Besides lively protection opposed to air assault, Germany additionally invested seriously in passive protection similar to air raid shelters. whereas a lot of this security was once traditional similar to underground shelters and the twin use of subways and different buildings, Germany confronted a few specific dilemmas in keeping towns opposed to evening hearth bomb raids. a few towns have been situated in areas the place the soil stipulations and absence of bedrock didn't let deep underground bunkers. hence, German architects designed enormous above-ground safeguard shelters which have been among the main tremendous protective constructions inbuilt international conflict II.

The good fortune of the USA military Air strength offensive opposed to Germany in early 1944 threatened to weigh down German army construction. A application was once initiated within the spring of 1944 to safeguard the by way of dispersion and fortification. An difficult application was once created to accommodate the main important industries in underground shelters. a few of these have been positioned in caves or tunnels, yet in different components, huge bolstered concrete buildings have been created the place caves weren't a pragmatic resolution. those buildings have been among the main complex for his or her day, and in lots of methods presaged the seriously bolstered shelters created throughout the chilly conflict for defense opposed to nuclear assault.

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Extra resources for Defense of the Third Reich 1941-45 (Fortress, Volume 107)

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A partially completed Me-262 jet fighter can be seen to the left. (NARA) Gordon Williamson, U-Boat Bases and Bunkers 1941–45, (Osprey Fortress 3, 2003) G BUNKER VALENTIN U-BOAT FACTORY, FARGE Plans to build fortified plants for submarine construction took shape in November 1942 with a scheme to construct a facility codenamed Hornisse (“hornet”) for the Deschimag yard in Bremen, Wespe (“wasp”) for the Blohm & Voss yard, and the Valentin factory for Bremer Vulkan in Vegesack. With the advent of revolutionary new modular Type XXI submarine the plans were altered so that Hornisse and Wespe would be used to manufacture sections of the submarine, and then the sections would be shipped to Valentin for final assembly.

The massive concrete hangar represented only the outer layer of the bunker. The interior contained a separate concrete factory building, with the space between the arch and the building serving for ventilation. The interior factory building was built largely of pre-cast components from the new Rudolph II plant in nearby Utting. The height of the interior building depended on the local topography. The Weingut I (Vineyard I) bunker at Mühldorf had an eight-storey interior building, while the Weingut II plant near Landsberg was limited to five-storeys due to a higher water table in the area.

These were developed by private firms in the early 1930s for security guards at factories. The early designs were most often constructed from steel, and so provided ballistic protection. They began to attract government attention during the early war years due to their obvious utility for a variety of military and civil defense applications. The most common air defense application was as a shelter for fire wardens. German air defense practice assigned fire wardens the task of directing stray A view of the Hamburg Gefechtstürm IV in the Heiligengeistfeld district.

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