By J. P. Msangi (auth.), Josephine Phillip Msangi (eds.)
This publication bargains a detailed exam of water shortage as a developmental problem dealing with member countries of the Southern African improvement group (SADC), the interventions which have been applied to strive against the location and the demanding situations nonetheless amazing. the 1st bankruptcy paints the backdrop of the water shortage challenge, reviewing ancient ways from the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro to the Johannesburg international Summit on Sustainable improvement (2002) to the United international locations Rio+20 convention on Sustainable improvement (2012), and recapping ideas and agreements reached in the course of and after those meetings. bankruptcy examines the Southern Africa region’s efforts to wrestle water shortage together with ideas, guidelines and techniques and the accountability of every member to enforce them. Written by means of the editor, J.P. Msangi, the bankruptcy describes Namibia’s efforts to make sure administration of scarce water. past enacting administration and toxins regulate laws and elevating public know-how, Namibia encourages learn to make sure attainment of the necessities of either the SADC Protocol and its personal water shortage administration legislation. the following 3 chapters supply Namibia-based case stories on affects of toxins on water remedy; at the results of anthropogenic actions on water caliber and at the results of water transfers from dams upstream of Von Bach dam. the ultimate bankruptcy offers certain summaries of the problems mentioned within the e-book, highlighting conclusions and providing suggestions. fighting Water shortage in Southern Africa synthesizes matters pertinent to the SADC nations in addition to to different areas, and provides examine that during the past has no longer been performed in Namibia.
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Additional resources for Combating Water Scarcity in Southern Africa: Case Studies from Namibia
P. 1007/978-94-007-7097-3_3, Ó The Author(s) 2014 43 44 M. K. Shuuya and Z. Hoko the four water treatment plants abstracting raw water from the canal. The parameters studied in the canal were turbidity, pH, hardness, sodium, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen and E. coli. The effect of turbidity and pH on water treatment chemical requirements was also investigated. The study area, 1,100 m above sea level, forms part of the Cuvelai Basin, known as the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin composed of four sub-basins: Tsumeb, Cuvelei-Iishana, Niipele-Odila and Olushandja.
Coli. Turbidity is routinely used to indicate drinking water quality (Mann et al. 2007). Turbidity causes an increase in water treatment costs as it increases coagulant dosages although the relationship is not linear (Pernitsky 2003; Bilotta and Brazier 2008). The location of sampling points and water treatment plants along the canal are shown in Fig. 2. It also interferes with the disinfection process and increases sludge generation (O’Neill et al. 1994). The pH was chosen because the coagulation and flocculation, processes necessary for the removal of turbidity and color are extremely pH sensitive (Heinonen and Lopez 2007).
Similarly there is wide range of legal, policy and regulatory frameworks within the Member States making it difficult to establish linkages during enforcement at both national and regional levels, posing challenges for consistent implementation of regional initiatives. Weak linkages between different sectors and weak information flow and inadequate institutional capacity arising from low levels of awareness, education and training hamper comprehensive and integrated development. Limited or lack of appreciation of the finite nature and economic value of water by some sections of the population and limited awareness and/or lack of effective stakeholder participation and involvement in decision making at a local, national and regional levels, particularly women, the youth, the disabled and the poor remain a great challenge to addressing water scarcity issues in the region.