By Ming-ko Woo (auth.), Ming-ko Woo (eds.)

This booklet provides decade-long advances in atmospheric study within the Mackenzie River Basin in northern Canada, which encompasses environments consultant of so much chilly parts in the world. Collaborative efforts through a group of approximately a hundred scientists and engineers have yielded wisdom fullyyt transferable to different excessive range areas in the USA, Europe and Asia. Emphases are put on the research of techniques (including typhoon genesis, precipitation, moisture and effort fluxes and frost), and the development and alertness of a set of versions and distant sensing to reinforce the evaluation of weather variability and water assets. This booklet enhances the 1st quantity coming from the GEWEX undertaking, facing the region's atmospheric dynamics. jointly those books offer a special synthesis of atmospheric and hydrological findings and an integrative technique throughout disciplines in addressing significant learn problems with chilly regions.

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Extra resources for Cold Region Atmospheric and Hydrologic Studies. The Mackenzie GEWEX Experience: Volume 2: Hydrologic Processes

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Weight of snow on a 9-m tall black spruce tree as snow accumulated, sublimated, melted and slid off its canopy. Experiment was carried out in a forest in northern Saskatchewan. (Modified after Pomeroy and Gray 1995) Snow redistribution by wind is an important process in the open terrain. Accompanying blowing snow events is the loss to sublimation by the transported snow. However, there are large discrepancies among various blowing snow models concerning the rates of sublimation loss. Essery et al.

This inhibits cloud formation (Fig. 11) so that substantially larger amounts of solar radiation are absorbed than over adjacent terrestrial areas (Rouse et al. 2003). The absorbed solar radiation goes mainly into heating the lake during summer (Schertzer et al. 2007). The large stored heat during the summer is utilized in fall and early winter (into December-January) for evaporation and atmospheric heating. Acting as reservoirs of water and heat, therefore, lakes interact with their overlying atmosphere through moisture (evaporation and precipitation) and sensible heat exchanges.

There is thus a strong association between the soil thermal and hydrologic regimes in the cold region. 1 Ground Frost A lack of data in most cold regions necessitates the use of simple schemes with low data requirement to compute ground freeze-thaw. One suitable approach is to model freeze-thaw by heat conduction using the Stefan algorithm (Woo et al. 2007). The equation was originally formulated for lake ice melt but adapted for ground freeze-thaw calculations (Jumikis 1977) and has been applied to Alaska and the Tibetan Plateau (Fox 1992; Li and Koike 2003).

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