By A.V.S.& Knight, J.(eds.) De Reuck

Chapter 1 Chairman's advent (page 1): Professor O. Lowenstein
Chapter 2 listening to in Fish (pages 3–17): according to S. Enger
Chapter three Evolution of the Auditory engaging in gear in Terrestrial Vertebrates (pages 18–40): A. Tumarkin
Chapter four constitution and serve as of the Ear and of the Auditory mind components in Birds (pages 41–63): J. Schwartzkopff
Chapter five listening to in Bats (pages 65–88): J. D. Pye
Chapter 6 Ultrastructure and Peripheral Innervation development of the Receptor relating to the 1st Coding of the Acoustic Message (pages 89–125): H. Spoendlin
Chapter 7 Cochlear constitution and listening to in guy (pages 126–142): Goran Bredberg
Chapter eight styles of job in unmarried Auditory Nerve Fibres of the Squirrel Monkey (pages 143–168): J. E. Rose, J. F. Brugge, D. J. Anderson and J. E. Hind
Chapter nine Efferent Inhibition within the Cochlea by means of the Olivocochlear package (pages 169–186): Jorgen Fex
Chapter 10 Orientation via Sound in Fishes (pages 187–206): H. Kleerekoper and T. Malar
Chapter eleven Localization and Lateralization of Sound in house (pages 207–233): William D. Neff
Chapter 12 position of the Pinna in Localization: Theoretical and Physiological results (pages 234–243): Dwight W. Batteau
Chapter thirteen Centrifugal keep an eye on Mechanisms of the Auditory Pathway (pages 245–258): I. C. Whitfield
Chapter 14 Auditory Responses Evoked within the Human Cortex (pages 259–271): Hallowell Davis
Chapter 15 Cortical illustration (pages 272–295): E. F. Evans
Chapter sixteen ultimate dialogue (pages 296–309):
Chapter 17 Chairman's remaining comments (page 310): Professor O. Lowenstein

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This underlines the relationship with the lower vertebrates. The possible perception of sound through this sensory end-organ was discussed by Pumphrey (1961). This author emphasized the analogy with the fish ear, in which the lagcna (and the sacculus) serves as sound receptor. 2d I 100 9P Col . But:$ I 1000 Lao Pho Arc Btb Anp Fua *Gad L y Noa POC COC Body Weight [gl 'tm 'tgAcn Fat a QP . lybita Phasianus colchicus Phylfoscopus trochilns Pica pica Podiceps cristatus Pyrrhula pyrrhula Strix aluco Steatornis caripensis Sturnus uulgaris Sylvia atricapilla Turdus merula Tyto alba FIG.

Pye: One point puzzles me; if the stapes is to act as an inertial reference source “for sound to come out”, in the detection of substrate sound, the end that is not fitted into the window should surely be free ? In many cases it articulated firmly with another part of the skull in the premaninialia. Tumarkin: The stapes of the pelycosaurs certainly had a very considerable articulation with the para-occipital. I don’t claim to understand the physics entirely, but I cannot think of any reason, apart from substrate hearing, why the stapes should be so colossal.

Moreover, because they were, audiologically speaking, completely unspecialized, and because the detection of sound must have been of immense survival valuc, every route that could possible carry vibrations was pressed into service by some group or groups. It is common ground that the hyomandibula, by virtue of its attachment to the otic capsule, played a key role in all these primary ears, but while text-books declare that an air sensitive ear formed immediately, I suggest that no less than three bone conductors evolved.

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