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2, which shows bandgap increase extracted from our 3D-NEGF s­ imulations vs. the diameter reduction Δtsi. It can be quite well explained by using a simple analytical model of the energy level of a constant potential well with infinite potential barrier at the Si/SiO2 interface. Using the effective mass approximation (parabolic E-k dispersion relationship) in a device with film thickness tsi and width 2si, E1, the first level above the conduction band. 2 (a) Bandgap increase vs. diameter reduction of the cross section (Δtsi) for a reference diameter of 2 and 3 nm in a square nanowire.

Takenouchi, and S. Komiyama, Highly sensitive and tunable detection of far-infrared radiation by quantum Hall devices, J. Appl. Phys. 89, (2001) 4037. Y. Kawano, Y. Hisanaga, and S. Komiyama, Cyclotron emission from quantized Hall devices: Injection of nonequilibrium electrons from contacts, Phys. Rev. B 59, 12537 (1999). Y. Kawano and S. Komiyama, Spatial distribution of non-equilibrium electrons in ­quantum Hall devices: Imaging via cyclotron emission, Phys. Rev. B 68, 085328 (2003). M. , Near-field nano/atom optics and technology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.

The significant change with W observed shows the validity of the above expectation: spatial distribution of the excited electrons is considerably influenced by the very long length scale of LE. This means that the electrons travel the macroscopic distance LE to lead to an appreciable generation of CE. Based on this, I explain the transport process of the excited electrons below. In the QHE devices, it is known that high electric field is concentrated in the two diagonally opposite corners, which are also electron entry and exit corners [52].

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