By OECD Publishing

Within the absence of robust govt regulations, the IEA initiatives that the global use of oil in delivery will approximately double among 2000 and 2030, resulting in an analogous bring up in greenhouse gasoline emissions. Bio fuels, comparable to ethanol, bio diese

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G. nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs). Since 1990, NOx, CO, and NMOCs have been identified as “indirect” GHGs because of their effects on ozone (Delucchi, 1993). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides “global warming potential” (GWP) factors for these compounds. More recently, aerosols have been identified as direct and indirect GHGs, and work is proceeding to identify which kinds or components of aerosols affect climate most (Delucchi, 2003).

Possible target fuels include methanol, synthetic diesel and gasoline (the latter two produced using the “Fischer-Tropsch” process to build the carbon-chain molecules), dimethyl ether (DME – a potential 43 2. Feedstock and process technologies alternative fuel for diesel engines with good combustion properties and low emissions), and gaseous fuels such as methane (CH4) and hydrogen. DME and the gaseous fuels are not compatible with today’s gasoline or diesel vehicles and would need both new types of vehicles (such as compressed natural gas or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles) and new refuelling infrastructure.

Iogen has constructed a demonstration facility in Ottawa that can process up to four thousand tonnes of wheat straw per year, producing up to one million litres of ethanol. Iogen has indicated plans to construct a full-size conversion facility (of the “biorefinery” type) within a few years, through a strategic partnership with Shell, at an as-yet undetermined location. Such a facility might be able to process several hundred times the amount of feedstock of the current test facility, but would need sufficient feedstock supplies within the area – typically a 100-150 kilometre radius (EESI, 2003).

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