By Ardeth Maung Thawnghmung

This paper sheds gentle at the actions of non-armed individuals of ethnic minorities in Burma, insufficiently studied actors within the traditional research of ethnic politics in Burma that has lengthy been ruled by means of a spotlight on ethnonational armed resistance teams and ceasefire teams. concentrating on the Kachin, Karen, Mon, and Shan ethnic teams, the learn describes 9 significant financial, political, and geographical different types of civilian event, through 4 contributions that non-armed participants of ethnic minority teams may perhaps make to the political method: (1) helping the established order, (2) remodeling or undermining the established order, (3) selling collective id and tradition and addressing humanitarian wishes, and (4) assisting to mediate ceasefire agreements. The research demonstrates the necessity to concentrate on the total diversity of nonviolent political activities that exist between ethnic minority populations and argues that coverage responses needs to glance past the position of armed teams and turn into extra delicate to the wishes of the various contributors of ethnic groups.

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Extra info for Beyond Armed Resistance: Ethnonational Politics in Burma (Myanmar)

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Karen, Kachin, Mon, Shan, and other cultural and literary organizations have also been active at the state and township levels, as well as in universities and colleges. These groups have published calendars, offered language courses, promoted traditional dance and other cultural activities, and coordinated cultural, religious, state-day, and New Year festivals. These organizations have been founded by, and have attracted and produced, community leaders and aspiring politicians, enabling them to acquire experience and skills in leadership, management, and organization, to establish contact with their respective communities across the country, and to foster ethnonational aspirations in nonviolent ways.

15 General Tin Oo, the powerful joint secretary of the BSPP, who earned his rank as an intelligence officer rather than as a field commander and who was once rumored to be one of the chosen successors of General Ne Win, was a Mon (Silverstein 1982: 182; Steinberg 1984: 198). A few elite members of minority ethnic groups were also elected or appointed to central and local executive governing bodies, and their participation enhanced the state’s legitimacy—a tactic also used by the previous civilian government in the 1950s.

Ceasefire: • Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (a segment became a border guard force in 2010) • Karen Peace Force (became a border guard force in 2010) • Thandaung Peace Group • P’doh Aung San Group* • Karen National Union-Karen National Liberation Army Peace Council Phalon-Sawaw (Pwo-Sgaw) Democratic Party won 9 seats and Kayin People’s Party won 6 seats in 2010. Kachin Mon Kachin State National Mon National Democratic Front Democratic Front won 3 seats in 1990. won 5 seats in 1990. All Mon Region Democracy Party won 16 seats in 2010.

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