By Peter Kinget, Michiel Steyaert

When evaluating traditional computing architectures to the architectures of organic neural structures, we discover a number of extraordinary transformations. traditional desktops use a low variety of excessive functionality computing parts which are programmed with algorithms to accomplish initiatives in a time sequenced method; they're very profitable in administrative functions, in clinical simulations, and in sure sign processing functions. in spite of the fact that, the organic platforms nonetheless considerably outperform traditional desktops in notion projects, sensory info processing and motory regulate. organic platforms use a very dif­ ferent computing paradigm: a big community of easy processors which are (adaptively) interconnected and function in parallel. precisely this hugely parallel processing turns out the main point to their luck. nevertheless the improvement of VLSI applied sciences supply us with technological skill to enforce very advanced structures on a silicon die. specifically analog VLSI circuits in general electronic applied sciences open the best way for the enforce at ion of hugely parallel analog sign processing structures for sensory sign processing purposes and for notion initiatives. In bankruptcy 1 the motivations at the back of the emergence of the analog VLSI of hugely parallel structures is mentioned intimately including the functions and !imitations of VLSI applied sciences and the mandatory learn and advancements. Analog parallel sign processing drives for the advance of very com­ pact, excessive pace and occasional energy circuits. a massive technologicallimitation cut back the dimensions of circuits and the advance of the rate and gear intake functionality is the equipment inaccuracies or machine mismatch.

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Power ratio is fixed by technological constants that express the matching quality of the technology. For circuit building blocks with high accuracy requirements thermal noise is considered as the limiting factor for performance improvement or power consumption reduction [Vit 94, Dij 94] but we show that the impact of transistor mismatch on the minimal power consumption is more important for presentday CMOS technologies than the impact of thermal noise for high speed analog circuits and massively parallel analog systems.

60) remain valid. 10. plifier. g. 62). This implies that for the same gain, bandwidth and accuracy specifications 5 times less power is required for an amplifier operated in weak inversion. 2 Differential pair voltage amplifier. 10. Similarly as for the one transistor amplifier the 1/9m of the input transistors is designed larger than the value of the resistors resistors R 1 and R 2 to obtain a weIl controIled closed-loop gain. As a result the bandwidth of the amplifier in a high precision design is limited by the pole caused by the input capacitance and it is easily calculated that: BW = 9m/(27fCGs).

A new direct extraction algorithm has been developed to extract the ~ VTO and (tt) of a transistor pair from their measured relative current difference ("i~~s) in saturation. The big advantage of measuring currents in saturation is the much lower sensitivity to parasitics in the set-up, which becomes more and more important for sub-micron and deep sub-micron technologies. Also, the model of V TO mismatch of minimal sized devices in sub-micron 26 ANALOG VLSI INTEGRATION OF MASSIVE PARALLEL SYSTEMS technologies has been improved.

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