By Koen Lampaert

Analog built-in circuits are vitally important as interfaces among the electronic components of built-in digital platforms and the surface international. a wide component of the trouble fascinated about designing those circuits is spent within the structure part. while the actual layout of electronic circuits is computerized to a wide volume, the structure of analog circuits continues to be a guide, time-consuming and error-prone job. this can be in general a result of non-stop nature of analog indications, which motives analog circuit functionality to be very delicate to structure parasitics. The parasitic components linked to interconnect wires reason loading and coupling results that degrade the frequency behaviour and the noise functionality of analog circuits. equipment mismatch and thermal results positioned a basic restrict at the conceivable accuracy of circuits. For profitable automation of analog structure, complicated position and course instruments which could deal with those severe parasitics are required.
some time past, computerized analog structure instruments attempted to optimize the format with out quantifying the functionality degradation brought through structure parasitics. accordingly, it used to be no longer assured that the ensuing format met the requirements and a number of format iterations might be wanted. In Analog format iteration for functionality andManufacturability, the authors suggest a functionality pushed format technique to conquer this challenge. during this method, the structure instruments are pushed by way of functionality constraints, such that the ultimate format, with parasitic results, nonetheless satisfies the requirements of the circuit. The functionality degradation linked to an intermediate format resolution is evaluated at runtime utilizing predetermined sensitivities. by contrast with different functionality pushed format methodologies, the instruments proposed during this booklet function at once at the functionality constraints, with out an intermediate parasitic constraint new release step. This technique makes a whole and brilliant trade-off among the several format choices attainable at runtime and for that reason removes the potential suggestions direction among constraint derivation, placement and format extraction.
in addition to its impact at the functionality, structure additionally has a profound influence at the yield and testability of an analog circuit. In AnalogLayout iteration for functionality and Manufacturability, the authors define a brand new criterion to quantify the detectability of a fault and mix this with a yield version to judge the testability of an built-in circuit structure. They then combine this method with their functionality pushed routing set of rules to provide layouts that experience optimum manufacturability whereas nonetheless assembly their functionality standards.
Analog format iteration for functionality and Manufacturability can be of curiosity to analog engineers, researchers and students.

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Examples of mismatch processes of this class are: distribution of ion-implanted, diffused, or substrate ions, local mobility fluctuations, oxide charges, etc. g. gradients) which can be modeled as an additional stochastic process with a long correlation distance. 35) where Ap and Sp are technology dependent area and distance proportionality constants for parameter P. 38) where Ax and Sx are process-related area and distance constants for parameter X. The validity of this model has been verified by measurements.

After placement, the device generators are called again in layout mode to generate the complete layout for one selected variant. Special features have been added to the device generators in order to make them suitable for use in a mixed-signal context. The device generators will be discussed in chapter 3. 3 Placement The task of the placement tool is to select an optimal position, orientation and implementation for each device in the circuit. The freedom in placing these devices is used to control the layoutinduced performance degradation within the margins imposed by the designer's specifications.

Margin of an opamp or the delay of a comparator. Performance characteristics can be determined using circuit simulation. Depending on the type of analysis that is required to determine their value, performance characteristics are classified as AC, Deor transient characteristics. A performance specification is an interval of the real axis which specifies a set of acceptable values for a performance characteristic P as determined by the application (see Fig. 1 ) Note that Pm;n can be -00 and Pm ax can be +00.

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