By Henning Andersen (Ed.)

This number of papers consolidates the remark that linguistic switch often is actualized step-by-step: any structural innovation being brought, authorized, and generalized, through the years, in a single grammatical setting after one other, in a development that may be understood by way of connection with the markedness values and the rating of the conditioning positive factors. The creation to the quantity and a bankruptcy through Henning Andersen make clear the theoretical bases for this statement, that's exemplified and mentioned in separate chapters through Kristin Bakken, Alexander Bergs and Dieter Stein, Vit Bubenik, Ulrich Busse, Marianne Mithun, Lene Schøsler, and John Charles Smith within the gentle of information from the histories of Norwegian, English, Hindi, Northern Iroquoian, and Romance. a last bankruptcy through Michael Shapiro provides a philosophical point of view. The papers have been first provided in a workshop on “Actualization styles in Linguistic switch” on the XIV overseas convention on ancient Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C. in 1999.

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Additional resources for Actualization: Linguistic Change in Progress. Papers from a Workshop Held at the 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C., 14 August 1999

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3 John Lyons Lyons (1977) is one of the few in recent times who have appreciated that most lexical "sense-relations", as he calls them, are logically problematic. In recognition of this he carefully separates his presentation of the logical modes of opposition (271-273) from the lexical relations and even introduces separate terminology for lexical relations in order to avoid using for them the standard terms of logic (279). MARKEDNESS AND THE THEORY OF CHANGE 41 Thus he decides to reserve the term antonym for the contrary opposites in the lexicon and to call the contradictory opposites complementarles, because lexical opposites of both kinds differ from their logical counterparts by "manifest[ing] the property of polarity" (279), that is, they combine their logical symmetry with a kind of asymmetry, one term of each such opposition being "positive", the other, "negative".

In comparison with the marked category I, the general meaning of the unmarked category II is limited to the absence of A-signaling [my translation; HA]" ([1932] 1971b:3; see also [1936] 1971b:29-30). )", from which one may infer that "the unmarked form represents both of the terms of the opposition in linguistic consciousness" ([1932] 1971b: 14), Jakobson tries to account for this by adding to the "signalization vs. non-signalization of A" a doubly contradictory relation allegedly implicit in all such oppositions.

An alternation can be thought of as a paradigm of allomorphs comprising one or 30 HENNING ANDERSEN more derived () allomorphs and one basic (u) allomorph. The contexts across which the allomorphs are distributed form another, correlated paradigm comprising one or more specified () environments, defined in phonological, morphosyntactic, or lexical terms, and an elsewhere (u) environment. This being so, the effect of rules of allomorphy is to assign marked allomorphs to marked contexts and unmarked (basic) allomorphs to unmarked (elsewhere) contexts.

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