By ACI Committee 345

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Additional resources for ACI 345R-11: Guide for Concrete Highway Bridge Deck Construction

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1 Excerpt from Aitken’s (1979a: 86) ‘Model of Scottish Speech’ Scots English 1 2 3 4 5 bairn lass kirk chaft gowpen mair stane hame dee heid before more stone home die head child girl church jaw double handful name see tie According to Aitken’s model, those speakers who mainly use words like the ones in columns 1–3 are considered to be ‘speaking Scots’, while those who mostly use words in columns 3–5 are ‘speaking English’ (1979a: 86). Aitken’s work is not only important because of his linguistic descriptions of Scots, but because he links these with social factors – he recognises that certain attitudes towards different varieties of Scots are a key factor in the use (or avoidance) of these varieties.

However, it seems unsatisfactory to simply take a given spelling at face value – it may represent many different phonological realisations of a word across Scotland, or may even be used for ideological purposes (Douglas, 2003). Furthermore, as Corbett (2003: 2) points out, written broad Scots is easy to identify, while the same is not true for Scottish Standard English. Thus a text such as a novel featuring speech representation may be read Chapter 2. The Scots language in context in very different ways depending on the readers’ preconceptions of how the characters ‘should’ sound.

2003a) to describe the development of Scots differ somewhat from the terms commonly used for English: the shift from Early Scots (ca 1375–1450) to Middle Scots (1450–1700) is thus contemporaneous with the shift from Middle English to Modern English. Although the period from the late 1460–1560 has been called the ‘heyday of the Scots tongue’ (Murison, 1979: 8), it is of course very difficult to find out who exactly spoke which language variety and how frequently. , 2003a: 9), and can thus be considered as the ‘official language’ of the non-Gaelic-speaking parts of Scotland during this period.

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