By R. R. Jordan

Educational Writing path is designed for college students embarking on extra reviews during the medium of English. This winning path is acceptable for college students at Cambridge First certificates point and above.

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Sometimes it is learners themselves who believe that the languages they have not used for a long time will not influence them in the production of a target language – a belief which we now know to be incorrect. Rivers (1979), for instance, comments on her reliance on German saying it is ‘ridiculous since I am so unfluent in German and rarely, rarely use it ‘(Rivers, 1979: 70). Möhle (1989), who interviewed her German L1 learners of Spanish as an L3 or L4 after finding traces of French in their speech, reports on how learners claimed they did not expect any influence from French because they had not used it for several years.

De Angelis (2005b) accounts for this unusual data by proposing the existence of two interacting constraints which concur in blocking native language influence in favour of non-native language influence. These two constraints are perception of correctness and association of foreignness. In brief, perception of correctness predicts that multilinguals resist incorporating L1 information into the target language as L1 information is perceived to be incorrect from the start, and this results in an increased acceptance level for non-native words into the target language.

The comparison led Kellerman to propose the notion of psychotypology or perceived language distance. In brief, Kellerman argued that transferability is influenced by two interacting constraints, psychotypology and prototypicality. Whenever a 22  'H $QJHOLV  37JNT[G   3DJH  Factors Affecting Non-native Language Influence 1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 3111 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111 23 learner perceives two languages as being close to one another (psychotypology), L1 features are likely to influence L2 forms.

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