By Peter McPhee

This quantity offers an authoritative synthesis of contemporary paintings at the social historical past of France and is now completely revised and up to date to hide the 'long 19th century' from 1789-1914. Peter McPhee bargains either a readable narrative and a particular, coherent argument approximately this century. McPhee explores issues similar to peasant interplay with the surroundings, the altering adventure of labor and rest, the character of crime and protest, altering demographic styles and relations constitution, the non secular practices of employees and peasants, and the ideology and inner repercussions of colonisation.

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By identifying the royal family as ‘the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s apprentice’, the women were also making explicit the ancient assumption of royal responsibility to God for the provision of food. The key decrees sanctioned, and the court party in disarray, the Revolution’s triumph seemed assured; to signify the magnitude of what they had achieved, people now began to refer to the ‘ancien (former) régime’. THE REVOLUTIONARY RECONSTRUCTION OF FRENCH SOCIETY, 1789–1792 37 Jostling with the potent sense of euphoria and unity in the autumn of 1789 was the stark realization of how revolution had been achieved and the magnitude of what remained to be done.

16 On 5 October, some 5,000–6,000 women, belatedly followed by the National Guard, marched to Versailles and compelled the royal family to return to Paris with the Assembly in its wake. By identifying the royal family as ‘the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s apprentice’, the women were also making explicit the ancient assumption of royal responsibility to God for the provision of food. The key decrees sanctioned, and the court party in disarray, the Revolution’s triumph seemed assured; to signify the magnitude of what they had achieved, people now began to refer to the ‘ancien (former) régime’.

Their investment in farm improvements, never more than 5 per cent of their receipts, shrank to nothing in the late 1780s while rents were doubled in a desperate attempt to pay off debts. A tax official travelling through the south-west was astonished to find nobles enforcing ‘rights and dues unknown or forgotten’, such as an extraordinary taille a noble magistrate in the Toulouse parlement exacted every time he bought land. This reaction occurred in the context of long-term inflation, whereby grain prices had outstripped labourers’ wages, and short-term harvest failures in 1785 and 1788 which immediately doubled grain prices.

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