By Bruce Menzies, N.E. Simons

Even if there are actually loads of machine programmes for fixing all types of origin layout difficulties, the necessity to cost those outputs by means of 'hand-calculation' has develop into extremely important. This publication concentrates on getting the basics correct after which utilizing them in functional applications.The ebook is illustrated with a variety of labored examples and with quick-reference tables and charts.

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Realize that if a result is unexpected it is more likely to be because there was something wrong with the test than because the soil was unusual. Critically examine the results to ensure that they are physically reasonable. Do they pass the `sanity test'? 12. De®ne the purpose of the test and ensure that the proposed test is suitable for the purpose. g. low range load cell for soft soils, local strain transducers for the measurement of small strain stiffness of stiff soils, mid-plane pore pressure probe to measure pore pressure parameter B for stiff soils, etc.

Geometrical anisotropy, or fabric as it is sometimes called, not only gives rise to strength variations with orientation of the test axes but is also probably partly the cause of undrained strength variations between test type. Madhloom (1973) carried out a series of undrained triaxial Direct shear Compression Extension Circle Ellipse fitted at axes 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 % of triaxial compression su with bedding horizontal Fig. 23 Polar diagram showing the variation in undrained shear strength with test type and specimen orientation for a soft clay from Kings Lynn, Norfolk, after Madhloom (1974) 50 CHAPTER 2 SHEAR STRENGTH compression tests, triaxial extension tests and direct shear box tests using specimens of a soft, silty clay from Kings Lynn, Norfolk.

No knowledge of the pore pressures is required, the undrained shear strength being used in a total stress analysis (the so-called 0 ˆ 0 analysis). A note on the 0 ˆ 0 analysis `It is a simple task to place a clay specimen in a shearing apparatus and cause a shear failure. A numerical value of shearing strength, which has acceptable precision, may readily be obtained if proper technique, a representative sample, and a satisfactory apparatus are used. The point which has too often been insuf®ciently appreciated by testing engineers is that the shearing strength, both in the laboratory specimen and in the clay in nature, is dependent on a number of variables.

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