By N. L. Carothers

This brief path on classical Banach house conception is a common follow-up to a primary path on useful research. the subjects coated have confirmed precious in lots of modern study arenas, resembling harmonic research, the idea of frames and wavelets, sign processing, economics, and physics. The publication is meant to be used in a sophisticated subject matters path or seminar, or for self reliant examine. It deals a extra elementary advent than are available within the present literature and contains references to expository articles and proposals for extra interpreting.

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Notice, for example, that (R R )p = `p . It should also be pointed out that the order of the factors X1; X2; : : : in an `p sum does not matter; that is, if : N ! ) While this may sound terribly complicated, all that we need for now is one very simple observation: We always have (`p `p )p = `p and (c0 c0 )0 = c0; for any 1 p < 1. And why should this be true? The proof, in essence, is one sentence: N can be written as the union of in nitely many, pairwise disjoint, in nite subsets. ) Given this notation, the proof of Pelczynski's theorem is just a few lines.

27. 28. 29. CHAPTER 2. PRELIMINARIES (unique) bounded linear map Te : X=M ! Y such that T = Teq, where q is the quotient map. Moreover, kTek = kT k. If X and Y are Banach spaces, and if T : X ! Y is a bounded linear map onto all of Y , then X= ker T is isomorphic to Y . Let X and Y be Banach spaces, and let T 2 B (X; Y ). Then, the following are equivalent: (i) X= ker T is isomorphic to range T . (ii) range T is closed in Y . (iii) There is a constant C < 1 such that inf fkx yk : y 2 ker T g C kTxk for all x 2 X .

1 for each x 2 X . Obviously, the xn are all continuous precisely when the Pn are all continuous. 1 If (xn) is a basis for a Banach space X , then every Pn (and hence also every xn ) is continuous. Moreover, K = supn kPn k < 1. Proof. Banach's ingenious idea is to de ne a new norm on X by setting jjj x jjj = sup kPn xk: n Since Pn x ! x, it's clear that jjj x jjj < 1 for any x 2 X . The rest of the details required to show that jjj jjj is a norm are more or less immediate. In order to show that the Pn are uniformly bounded, we want to show that jjj x jjj K kxk for some constant K (and all x 2 X ).

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