By Catford J C

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G. when English: You're going to Helsinki ? with a final-rise intonation is translated into Finnish as Menette Helsinkiinko ? (with falling intonation, but 'interrogative particle' ko). Here it may seem as if an English tone (a phonological item) has a Finnish grammatical item as its translation equivalent. But this is not so. I n the SL text, the particular tone is a phonological exponent of the grammatical category 'enquiry' and this in turn has a contextual meaning which relates it to a feature of jitea/ion-substance.

G. If you do this, WE will do that. Here the actual situational features relatable to WE are the speaker (S) and at least one other ( O ) ; the addressee (A) is excluded. Hence the translation equivalence: 51 A LINGUISTIC THEORY OF TRANSLATION we — V © h j = VS)\ A — hard where the outer line in each case indicates the total (potential) system-derived contextual meaning of each item, the inner circle the actual situational elements to which the forms relate. 5 We have said that translation equivalence occurs when SL and T L items are relatable to 'the same' features of substance.

32 An even better example is the lexical item sputnik, which first occurred in English as a 'transference'-item in October 1957. I n the co-texts in which it appeared it had the meaning of '(Russian) artificial satellite'—no more. g. fellow-traveller (traveller, wayfarer, companion . . ) companion (guide to, handbook, introduction) satellite (planet, earth, moon . . ) {artificial) satellite (space-ship, rocket . . ) In English, however, this item was introduced, and has remained, within only the last lexical set, and with the appropriate contextual meaning.

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