By Marcel Nelson
Delivering a severe account of the cave in of the FTAA negotiations and changes to energy kinfolk within the Americas, this e-book argues that the cave in used to be rooted in a "crisis of authority" caused by way of starting to be competition within the Americas to US management and the neo-liberal reforms that have been promoted by means of Washington because the Nineteen Eighties.
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Extra info for A History of the FTAA: From Hegemony to Fragmentation in the Americas
In fact, it can be argued, as Cox himself recognizes elsewhere, that the division between the global and the national is something that is quite consistent with the manner in which these institutions wish to present themselves, that it is an ideological construct rather than the actual structure of a historical bloc. The sense that there is a global civil society to keep global governance structures accountable serves to legitimate their decision-making structures. For example, state actors, particularly the ones associated with the American state, sought to set up the institutional framework of the FTAA in a way that would involve particular national civil society actors but in a way that would isolate them from the rest of their national state institutional apparatuses and civil societies.
Ultimately, it was the evolution of social relations within and between the hemisphere’s national social formations, as well as the crystallizations of their respective national state apparatuses, conditioned by a structural organic crisis, that shaped the evolution of the FTAA negotiations. In other words, the crises of authority in the hemisphere rendered the “noncontemporaneity of the present” more acute, and made the project of unifying the present into a hegemonic project through the FTAA more difficult.
The consequence was that Brazil was continually able to pressure the United States to back away from its preferences—for example, the preference that FTAA accession be done through NAFTA. Following the 1999 exchange crisis and a crisis of authority pertaining to the neoliberal reforms that were implemented throughout the 1990s, the Brazilian government adopted a much more aggressive attitude toward the negotiations, particularly in relation to agricultural subsidies, which posed a more direct challenge to the FTAA and US leadership in the hemisphere, although this opposition was never articulated explicitly.