By William D. Davies

Madurese is a huge neighborhood language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, frequently at the island of Madura and adjoining elements of Java, making it the fourth greatest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there isn't any latest accomplished descriptive grammar of the language, with current stories being both sketches of the total grammar, or particular descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific subject matters inside of those elements of the grammar. there isn't any competing paintings that offers the breadth and intensity of assurance of this grammar, specifically (though no longer solely) in regards to syntax.

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Acoustic analysis does not confirm a reliable difference in open and closed syllables. 23 Cohn and Lockwood (1994) report a different tense/lax alternation involving [ɛ]/[e] and [ɔ]/[o]. They report systematic tensing and raising of front and back non-high vowels following nasals, citing the data in (36), which confirms Stevens’ (1968) observation (and reflects the nasalization rule to be discussed presently). (36) [pɛka] ‘pinch’ [pɔka] ‘break’ [mekat] ‘trap’ [mka] ‘break (actor voice)’ Nasalization.

Examples include: (46) nɛa sɛər ɲɛɔr bɤriɤ ḍiəm ṭiuk ɔa sɔər d. uɤ bui           [nɛja] [sɛjər] [ɲɛjɔr] [bɤrijɤ [ḍijəm] [ṭijuk] [ɔwa] [sɔwər] [d. uwɤ [buwi] ‘intend’ ‘fall asleep’ ‘coconut’ ‘feel unwell’ ‘calm’ ‘commotion’ ‘old’ ‘notch’ ‘two’ ‘fetter’ It is telling that for those roots with an Indonesian cognate, the Indonesian word lacks the glide but in all other respects is virtually identical to the Madurese: niat ‘intend’, diam ‘calm’, bui ‘fetter’, dua ‘two’, tua ‘old’.

See Stevens 1966. Syllable structure and phonotactic constraints 25 The opposite correspondence obtains in some cognates. Indonesian /a/ is // in Madurese. Due to the restriction on schwa, this occurs only in closed syllables. (11) Madurese [sənnə] [maləm] [kərrəp] [takəp] Indonesian [səna] [malam] [kərap] [tangkap] ‘happy’ ‘night’ ‘often’ ‘catch’ The words ‘happy’ and ‘often’ illustrate an alternative to the /ə/ ~ /a/ correspondence. Rather than a phonemic /a/ where Indonesian has schwa in an open syllable, the onset of the following syllable is geminated, creating the proper environment for Madurese /ə/.

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